HOME

BACK CANARY GEOG CANARY SHOP ABOUT US MESSAGE BOARD CONTACT US

 

  APPLE TREE  

 

Latin Name : Malus domestica

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Maloideae
Genus: Malus
Species: Malus domestica

 

General Info

The apple is a tree from the rose family.

It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits.

It is a small tree reaching 5-12 m tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown.

The leaves are alternately arranged, simple oval with an acute tip and serrated margin, slightly downy below, 5-12 cm long and 3-6 cm broad on a 2-5 cm petiole.

The flowers are produced in spring with the leaves, white, usually tinged pink at first, 2.5-3.5 cm diameter, with five petals.

The fruit matures in Autumn, and is typically 5-9 cm diameter (rarely up to 15 cm).

Apples do not flower in tropical climates because they have a chilling requirement.

Apples are perennials and are propagated asexually by grafting. Seedling apples are different from their parents, sometimes radically.

Apples are relatively indifferent to soil conditions and will grow in a wide range of Ph values and fertility levels. They do require some protection from the wind and should not be planted in low areas that are prone to late spring frosts.

Apples require good drainage, and heavy soils or flat land should be tilled to make certain that the root systems are never in saturated soil.

Apples are prone to biennial bearing. If the fruit is not thinned when the tree carries a large crop, it may produce very little flower the following year. Good thinning helps even out the cycle, so that a reasonable crop can be grown every year.

The trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests.

Apples can be canned, juiced, and optionally fermented to produce apple juice, cider, vinegar and pectin.

Mature trees grow to 20 ft. Two varieties are needed for best fruit set. Fruit production expected during 3rd year. Spray program necessary for good-quality fruit.

 

Pruning

Apple trees are usually trained to a central leader. The trees are pruned to a main trunk with horizontal limbs ever one to two feet up the leader. A pine tree is an excellent example of the central leader type. The pine tree achieves the central leader naturally; unfortunately fruit trees must be trained to this system. Remove any limbs that are too close together or angle sharply upward. Wooden "spreaders" can be used to widen the angles between the limb and trunk or the limbs can be tied or weighted down to achieve the same results. Mature trees may be pruned any time during dormancy, but the select time is in early spring before growth starts.

 

Planting Info

Spacing  20' x 25'

Soil PH 6.0

Moisture Requirement Moderate

Pruning Requirement Moderate

 

VARIETIES

ANNA - Low chill apple developed in Israel. Trees are vigorous and relatively disease free. Fruit is crisp with excellent flavor and 30-50% red blush over green. Ripens late June.

DORSETT GOLDEN - Low chill apple. Excellent pollinator for Anna. Heavy producer. High quality, golden fruit. Fruit is sweet, crisp, and has a mildly sprite flavor. Ripens late June.

EIN SHEMER - Low chill apple. Self-pollinating. Good pollinator for Anna. Crisp, tart, good quality flesh. A low chilling selection from Israel. Bears at young age. Very productive. Ripens early June.

GALA - Mid chill apple. Red striping gives golden skin a red-orange color. Crisp, aromatic flesh with touch of tartness. Excellent quality fruit that stores well. Ripens mid-summer to early fall.

GRANNY SMITH - Low chill variety from Australia. Self-pollinating. Large green fruit with glossy smooth skin. Excellent quality tart-sweet, all-purpose apple. Ripens early fall.

MOLLYS DELICIOUS - Mid chill, excellent quality red apple. Large fruit has light yellow ground color and bright red blush. Sweet taste is excellent for fresh eating or juice. Vigorous tree. Ripens mid-late July.

RED DELICIOUS - Requires high chilling. Favorite for generations. One of the better-known apple varieties. Creamy-white, sweet flesh with bright red skin. Plant in northern areas only.

YELLOW DELICIOUS - (Also called Golden Delicious). Requires mid chilling. Parent of many low-chilling apple varieties. Large, golden fruit ripens late summer. Aromatic white flesh with mild, sweet and distinctive flavor. Self-fertile and good pollinator.